The Making of the Triple Entente

Discourse on the alliance systems of World War I focuses on the disputes between countries of the Triple Alliance and of the Triple Entente, and in particular how such pacts shaped continental politics. According to scholar Paul Hayes, both the Austro-German and Franco-Russian alliances "formed solid, opposing elements in the European political system." Furthermore, these alliances became … Continue reading The Making of the Triple Entente

The Orations of Winston Churchill: “Some Chicken, Some Neck”

In response to French Marshal Philippe Pétain, who believed that Britain would succumb to the Germans and "have its neck wrung like a chicken," Churchill responded with his oration, "Some chicken, some neck." The rousing speech before the Canadian delegation was meant to praise the courage of Canadian soldiers, muster confidence for the war effort, … Continue reading The Orations of Winston Churchill: “Some Chicken, Some Neck”

The British Response to the Russian Revolution

The centennial of the Russian Revolution marks the anniversary of one (or rather, two) of the most iconic political upheavals in modern history. These two revolutions, which occurred 100 years ago this year, have captured the interests of the hypothetical scholars (What if the the coup had failed to topple the provisional government?), Marxist historians … Continue reading The British Response to the Russian Revolution

Exiting a Monetary Union and Defining British Exceptionalism

Twenty-five years ago today, the British government withdrew from the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM). The Conservative administration found itself unable to maintain the agreed upon semi-pegged exchange rate, set between the pound sterling and the German mark, and was forced to leave on September 16, 1992, what was later coined as "Black Wednesday." Readers will surely … Continue reading Exiting a Monetary Union and Defining British Exceptionalism

The Orations of Winston Churchill: “We Shall Fight on the Beaches”

Nearly nine months after the Nazi invasion of Poland in September 1939, the Phoney War had come to an end. The German armies advanced westward, as French and British troops were pushed further toward the coast. General Viscount Gort, the Commander of the British Expeditionary Force, ordered a retreat to the nearby port of Dunkirk. Government … Continue reading The Orations of Winston Churchill: “We Shall Fight on the Beaches”

The Orations of Winston Churchill: The Abdication of King Edward VIII

A constitutional crisis erupted in Britain when the reigning monarch, King Edward VIII, decided to marry Wallis Simpson. Not only was Simpson an American divorcée, but she had also been married twice beforehand. And, not only that, but both her former husbands were still alive. These incomprehensible circumstances had no place within the established Anglican … Continue reading The Orations of Winston Churchill: The Abdication of King Edward VIII

The Orations of Winston Churchill: “Blood, Toil, Tears, and Sweat”

On May 10, 1940, Neville Chamberlain resigned from the position of Prime Minister amidst pressure from the other MPs in Parliament. Just three days earlier, MP Leo Amery had delivered a political tirade at the House of Commons, critiquing Chamberlain's failed Norwegian Campaign and calling for his resignation: "There must be a change. First and foremost, it … Continue reading The Orations of Winston Churchill: “Blood, Toil, Tears, and Sweat”

The Attack on Automation

The Industrial Revolution was a period of rapid economic growth and technological change. Eighteenth-century onlookers saw a wave of new manufacturing processes that were more efficient than prior methods, as well as the expansion of the factory system, which replaced the putting-out (workshop) system. The new era for technology began in Britain in the late-eighteenth century and … Continue reading The Attack on Automation